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Universal highly arc transitive digraphs ★★★

Author(s): Cameron; Praeger; Wormald

An alternating walk in a digraph is a walk $ v_0,e_1,v_1,\ldots,v_m $ so that the vertex $ v_i $ is either the head of both $ e_i $ and $ e_{i+1} $ or the tail of both $ e_i $ and $ e_{i+1} $ for every $ 1 \le i \le m-1 $. A digraph is universal if for every pair of edges $ e,f $, there is an alternating walk containing both $ e $ and $ f $

Question   Does there exist a locally finite highly arc transitive digraph which is universal?

Keywords: arc transitive; digraph

P vs. NP ★★★★

Author(s): Cook; Levin

Problem   Is P = NP?

Keywords: Complexity Class; Computational Complexity; Millenium Problems; NP; P; polynomial algorithm

F_d versus F_{d+1} ★★★

Author(s): Krajicek

Problem   Find a constant $ k $ such that for any $ d $ there is a sequence of tautologies of depth $ k $ that have polynomial (or quasi-polynomial) size proofs in depth $ d+1 $ Frege system $ F_{d+1} $ but requires exponential size $ F_d $ proofs.

Keywords: Frege system; short proof

Even vs. odd latin squares ★★★

Author(s): Alon; Tarsi

A latin square is even if the product of the signs of all of the row and column permutations is 1 and is odd otherwise.

Conjecture   For every positive even integer $ n $, the number of even latin squares of order $ n $ and the number of odd latin squares of order $ n $ are different.

Keywords: latin square

Universal Steiner triple systems ★★

Author(s): Grannell; Griggs; Knor; Skoviera

Problem   Which Steiner triple systems are universal?

Keywords: cubic graph; Steiner triple system

Monotone 4-term Arithmetic Progressions ★★

Author(s): Davis; Entringer; Graham; Simmons

Question   Is it true that every permutation of positive integers must contain monotone 4-term arithmetic progressions?

Keywords: monotone arithmetic progression; permutation

The Bermond-Thomassen Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Bermond; Thomassen

Conjecture   For every positive integer $ k $, every digraph with minimum out-degree at least $ 2k-1 $ contains $ k $ disjoint cycles.

Keywords: cycles

Continous analogue of Hirsch conjecture ★★

Author(s): Deza; Terlaky; Zinchenko

Conjecture   The order of the largest total curvature of the primal central path over all polytopes defined by $ n $ inequalities in dimension $ d $ is $ n $.

Keywords: curvature; polytope

Average diameter of a bounded cell of a simple arrangement ★★

Author(s): Deza; Terlaky; Zinchenko

Conjecture   The average diameter of a bounded cell of a simple arrangement defined by $ n $ hyperplanes in dimension $ d $ is not greater than $ d $.

Keywords: arrangement; diameter; polytope

Drawing disconnected graphs on surfaces ★★

Author(s): DeVos; Mohar; Samal

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be the disjoint union of the graphs $ G_1 $ and $ G_2 $ and let $ \Sigma $ be a surface. Is it true that every optimal drawing of $ G $ on $ \Sigma $ has the property that $ G_1 $ and $ G_2 $ are disjoint?

Keywords: crossing number; surface

Matchings extend to Hamiltonian cycles in hypercubes ★★

Author(s): Ruskey; Savage

Question   Does every matching of hypercube extend to a Hamiltonian cycle?

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle; hypercube; matching

Linear Hypergraphs with Dimension 3 ★★

Author(s): de Fraysseix; Ossona de Mendez; Rosenstiehl

Conjecture   Any linear hypergraph with incidence poset of dimension at most 3 is the intersection hypergraph of a family of triangles and segments in the plane.

Keywords: Hypergraphs

Reed's omega, delta, and chi conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Reed

For a graph $ G $, we define $ \Delta(G) $ to be the maximum degree, $ \omega(G) $ to be the size of the largest clique subgraph, and $ \chi(G) $ to be the chromatic number of $ G $.

Conjecture   $ \chi(G) \le \ceil{\frac{1}{2}(\Delta(G)+1) + \frac{1}{2}\omega(G)} $ for every graph $ G $.

Keywords: coloring

Pebbling a cartesian product ★★★

Author(s): Graham

We let $ p(G) $ denote the pebbling number of a graph $ G $.

Conjecture   $ p(G_1 \Box G_2) \le p(G_1) p(G_2) $.

Keywords: pebbling; zero sum

Rendezvous on a line ★★★

Author(s): Alpern

Problem   Two players start at a distance of 2 on an (undirected) line (so, neither player knows the direction of the other) and both move at a maximum speed of 1. What is the infimum expected meeting time $ R $ (first time when the players occupy the same point) which can be achieved assuming the two players must adopt the same strategy?

Keywords: game theory; optimization; rendezvous

Linial-Berge path partition duality ★★★

Author(s): Berge; Linial

Conjecture   The minimum $ k $-norm of a path partition on a directed graph $ D $ is no more than the maximal size of an induced $ k $-colorable subgraph.

Keywords: coloring; directed path; partition

What is the smallest number of disjoint spanning trees made a graph Hamiltonian ★★

Author(s): Goldengorin

We are given a complete simple undirected weighted graph $ G_1=(V,E) $ and its first arbitrary shortest spanning tree $ T_1=(V,E_1) $. We define the next graph $ G_2=(V,E\setminus E_1) $ and find on $ G_2 $ the second arbitrary shortest spanning tree $ T_2=(V,E_2) $. We continue similarly by finding $ T_3=(V,E_3) $ on $ G_3=(V,E\setminus \cup_{i=1}^{2}E_i) $, etc. Let k be the smallest number of disjoint shortest spanning trees as defined above and let $ T^{k}=(V,\cup_{i=1}^{k}E_i) $ be the graph obtained as union of all $ k $ disjoint trees.

Question 1. What is the smallest number of disjoint spanning trees creates a graph $ T^{k} $ containing a Hamiltonian path.

Question 2. What is the smallest number of disjoint spanning trees creates a graph $ T^{k} $ containing a shortest Hamiltonian path?

Questions 3 and 4. Replace in questions 1 and 2 a shortest spanning tree by a 1-tree. What is the smallest number of disjoint 1-trees creates a Hamiltonian graph? What is the smallest number of disjoint 1-trees creates a graph containing a shortest Hamiltonian cycle?

Keywords: 1-trees; cycle; Hamitonian path; spanning trees

Davenport's constant ★★★


For a finite (additive) abelian group $ G $, the Davenport constant of $ G $, denoted $ s(G) $, is the smallest integer $ t $ so that every sequence of elements of $ G $ with length $ \ge t $ has a nontrivial subsequence which sums to zero.

Conjecture   $ s( {\mathbb Z}_n^d) = d(n-1) + 1 $

Keywords: Davenport constant; subsequence sum; zero sum

Coloring and immersion ★★★

Author(s): Abu-Khzam; Langston

Conjecture   For every positive integer $ t $, every (loopless) graph $ G $ with $ \chi(G) \ge t $ immerses $ K_t $.

Keywords: coloring; complete graph; immersion

Rainbow AP(4) in an almost equinumerous coloring ★★

Author(s): Conlon

Problem   Do 4-colorings of $ \mathbb{Z}_{p} $, for $ p $ a large prime, always contain a rainbow $ AP(4) $ if each of the color classes is of size of either $ \lfloor p/4\rfloor $ or $ \lceil p/4\rceil $?

Keywords: arithmetic progression; rainbow