# Random

## Sums of independent random variables with unbounded variance ★★

Author(s): Feige

**Conjecture**If are independent random variables with , then

Keywords: Inequality; Probability Theory; randomness in TCS

## Bounding the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs with fixed maximum degree ★★

**Conjecture**A triangle-free graph with maximum degree has chromatic number at most .

Keywords: chromatic number; girth; maximum degree; triangle free

## What are hyperfuncoids isomorphic to? ★★

Author(s): Porton

Let be an indexed family of sets.

*Products* are for .

*Hyperfuncoids* are filters on the lattice of all finite unions of products.

**Problem**Is a bijection from hyperfuncoids to:

- \item prestaroids on ; \item staroids on ; \item completary staroids on ?

If yes, is defining the inverse bijection? If not, characterize the image of the function defined on .

Consider also the variant of this problem with the set replaced with the set of complements of elements of the set .

Keywords: hyperfuncoids; multidimensional

## Characterizing (aleph_0,aleph_1)-graphs ★★★

Call a graph an -*graph* if it has a bipartition so that every vertex in has degree and every vertex in has degree .

**Problem**Characterize the -graphs.

Keywords: binary tree; infinite graph; normal spanning tree; set theory

## inverse of an integer matrix ★★

Author(s): Gregory

**Question**I've been working on this for a long time and I'm getting nowhere. Could you help me or at least tell me where to look for help. Suppose D is an m-by-m diagonal matrix with integer elements all . Suppose X is an m-by-n integer matrix . Consider the partitioned matrix M = [D X]. Obviously M has full row rank so it has a right inverse of rational numbers. The question is, under what conditions does it have an integer right inverse? My guess, which I can't prove, is that the integers in each row need to be relatively prime.

Keywords: invertable matrices, integer matrices

## Exact colorings of graphs ★★

Author(s): Erickson

**Conjecture**For , let be the statement that given any exact -coloring of the edges of a complete countably infinite graph (that is, a coloring with colors all of which must be used at least once), there exists an exactly -colored countably infinite complete subgraph. Then is true if and only if , , or .

Keywords: graph coloring; ramsey theory

## Transversal achievement game on a square grid ★★

Author(s): Erickson

**Problem**Two players alternately write O's (first player) and X's (second player) in the unoccupied cells of an grid. The first player (if any) to occupy a set of cells having no two cells in the same row or column is the winner. What is the outcome of the game given optimal play?

Keywords: game

## Linear-size circuits for stable $0,1 < 2$ sorting? ★★

Author(s): Regan

**Problem**Can -size circuits compute the function on defined inductively by , , , and ?

## Vertex Coloring of graph fractional powers ★★★

Author(s): Iradmusa

**Conjecture**Let be a graph and be a positive integer. The

*power of*, denoted by , is defined on the vertex set , by connecting any two distinct vertices and with distance at most . In other words, . Also

*subdivision of*, denoted by , is constructed by replacing each edge of with a path of length . Note that for , we have .

Now we can define the fractional power of a graph as follows:

Let be a graph and . The graph is defined by the power of the subdivision of . In other words .

*Conjecture.*Let be a connected graph with and be a positive integer greater than 1. Then for any positive integer , we have .

In [1], it was shown that this conjecture is true in some special cases.

Keywords: chromatic number, fractional power of graph, clique number

## Are there an infinite number of lucky primes? ★

Author(s): Lazarus: Gardiner: Metropolis; Ulam

**Conjecture**If every second positive integer except 2 is remaining, then every third remaining integer except 3, then every fourth remaining integer etc. , an infinite number of the remaining integers are prime.

## Complete bipartite subgraphs of perfect graphs ★★

Author(s): Fox

**Problem**Let be a perfect graph on vertices. Is it true that either or contains a complete bipartite subgraph with bipartition so that ?

Keywords: perfect graph

## Rota's unimodal conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Rota

Let be a matroid of rank , and for let be the number of closed sets of rank .

**Conjecture**is unimodal.

**Conjecture**is log-concave.

Keywords: flat; log-concave; matroid

## Algorithm for graph homomorphisms ★★

Author(s): Fomin; Heggernes; Kratsch

**Question**

Is there an algorithm that decides, for input graphs and , whether there exists a homomorphism from to in time for some constant ?

Keywords: algorithm; Exponential-time algorithm; homomorphism

## Upgrading a completary multifuncoid ★★

Author(s): Porton

Let be a set, be the set of filters on ordered reverse to set-theoretic inclusion, be the set of principal filters on , let be an index set. Consider the filtrator .

**Conjecture**If is a completary multifuncoid of the form , then is a completary multifuncoid of the form .

See below for definition of all concepts and symbols used to in this conjecture.

Refer to this Web site for the theory which I now attempt to generalize.

Keywords:

## The Crossing Number of the Complete Bipartite Graph ★★★

Author(s): Turan

The crossing number of is the minimum number of crossings in all drawings of in the plane.

**Conjecture**

Keywords: complete bipartite graph; crossing number

## Hamiltonicity of Cayley graphs ★★★

Author(s): Rapaport-Strasser

**Question**Is every Cayley graph Hamiltonian?

Keywords:

## The stubborn list partition problem ★★

Author(s): Cameron; Eschen; Hoang; Sritharan

**Problem**Does there exist a polynomial time algorithm which takes as input a graph and for every vertex a subset of , and decides if there exists a partition of into so that only if and so that are independent, is a clique, and there are no edges between and ?

Keywords: list partition; polynomial algorithm

## Cycle Double Covers Containing Predefined 2-Regular Subgraphs ★★★

Author(s): Arthur; Hoffmann-Ostenhof

**Conjecture**Let be a -connected cubic graph and let be a -regular subgraph such that is connected. Then has a cycle double cover which contains (i.e all cycles of ).

Keywords:

## The Double Cap Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Kalai

**Conjecture**The largest measure of a Lebesgue measurable subset of the unit sphere of containing no pair of orthogonal vectors is attained by two open caps of geodesic radius around the north and south poles.

Keywords: combinatorial geometry; independent set; orthogonality; projective plane; sphere

## A homomorphism problem for flows ★★

Author(s): DeVos

**Conjecture**Let be abelian groups and let and satisfy and . If there is a homomorphism from to , then every graph with a B-flow has a B'-flow.

Keywords: homomorphism; nowhere-zero flow; tension

## Unions of triangle free graphs ★★★

**Problem**Does there exist a graph with no subgraph isomorphic to which cannot be expressed as a union of triangle free graphs?

Keywords: forbidden subgraph; infinite graph; triangle free

## Does the chromatic symmetric function distinguish between trees? ★★

Author(s): Stanley

**Problem**Do there exist non-isomorphic trees which have the same chromatic symmetric function?

Keywords: chromatic polynomial; symmetric function; tree

## MacEachen Conjecture ★

Author(s): McEachen

**Conjecture**Every odd prime number must either be adjacent to, or a prime distance away from a primorial or primorial product.

Keywords: primality; prime distribution

## Stable set meeting all longest directed paths. ★★

Author(s): Laborde; Payan; Xuong N.H.

**Conjecture**Every digraph has a stable set meeting all longest directed paths

Keywords:

## Highly connected graphs with no K_n minor ★★★

Author(s): Thomas

**Problem**Is it true for all , that every sufficiently large -connected graph without a minor has a set of vertices whose deletion results in a planar graph?

Keywords: connectivity; minor

## List chromatic number and maximum degree of bipartite graphs ★★

Author(s): Alon

**Conjecture**There is a constant such that the list chromatic number of any bipartite graph of maximum degree is at most .

Keywords:

## Every prism over a 3-connected planar graph is hamiltonian. ★★

Author(s): Kaiser; Král; Rosenfeld; Ryjácek; Voss

**Conjecture**If is a -connected planar graph, then has a Hamilton cycle.

Keywords:

## The Berge-Fulkerson conjecture ★★★★

**Conjecture**If is a bridgeless cubic graph, then there exist 6 perfect matchings of with the property that every edge of is contained in exactly two of .

Keywords: cubic; perfect matching

## Generalised Empty Hexagon Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Wood

**Conjecture**For each there is an integer such that every set of at least points in the plane contains collinear points or an empty hexagon.

Keywords: empty hexagon

## Decomposing an even tournament in directed paths. ★★★

Author(s): Alspach; Mason; Pullman

**Conjecture**Every tournament on an even number of vertices can be decomposed into directed paths.

Keywords:

## Slice-ribbon problem ★★★★

Author(s): Fox

**Conjecture**Given a knot in which is slice, is it a ribbon knot?

## Jacobian Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Keller

**Conjecture**Let be a field of characteristic zero. A collection of polynomials in variables defines an automorphism of if and only if the Jacobian matrix is a nonzero constant.

Keywords: Affine Geometry; Automorphisms; Polynomials

## Minimum number of arc-disjoint transitive subtournaments of order 3 in a tournament ★★

Author(s): Yuster

**Conjecture**If is a tournament of order , then it contains arc-disjoint transitive subtournaments of order 3.

Keywords:

## 3-Edge-Coloring Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Arthur; Hoffmann-Ostenhof

**Conjecture**Suppose with is a connected cubic graph admitting a -edge coloring. Then there is an edge such that the cubic graph homeomorphic to has a -edge coloring.

Keywords: 3-edge coloring; 4-flow; removable edge

## Hilbert-Smith conjecture ★★

Author(s): David Hilbert; Paul A. Smith

**Conjecture**Let be a locally compact topological group. If has a continuous faithful group action on an -manifold, then is a Lie group.

Keywords:

## Domination in plane triangulations ★★

**Conjecture**Every sufficiently large plane triangulation has a dominating set of size .

Keywords: coloring; domination; multigrid; planar graph; triangulation

## Unsolvability of word problem for 2-knot complements ★★★

Author(s): Gordon

**Problem**Does there exist a smooth/PL embedding of in such that the fundamental group of the complement has an unsolvable word problem?

Keywords: 2-knot; Computational Complexity; knot theory

## Pentagon problem ★★★

Author(s): Nesetril

**Question**Let be a 3-regular graph that contains no cycle of length shorter than . Is it true that for large enough~ there is a homomorphism ?

Keywords: cubic; homomorphism

## Distribution and upper bound of mimic numbers ★★

Author(s): Bhattacharyya

**Problem**

Let the notation denote '' divides ''. The mimic function in number theory is defined as follows [1].

**Definition**For any positive integer divisible by , the mimic function, , is given by,

By using this definition of mimic function, the mimic number of any non-prime integer is defined as follows [1].

**Definition**The number is defined to be the mimic number of any positive integer , with respect to , for the minimum value of which .

Given these two definitions and a positive integer , find the distribution of mimic numbers of those numbers divisible by .

Again, find whether there is an upper bound of mimic numbers for a set of numbers divisible by any fixed positive integer .

Keywords: Divisibility; mimic function; mimic number

## Discrete Logarithm Problem ★★★

Author(s):

If is prime and , we write if satisfies . The problem of finding such an integer for a given (with ) is the *Discrete Log Problem*.

**Conjecture**There does not exist a polynomial time algorithm to solve the Discrete Log Problem.

Keywords: discrete log; NP

## Partitionning a tournament into k-strongly connected subtournaments. ★★

Author(s): Thomassen

**Problem**Let be positve integer Does there exists an integer such that every -strong tournament admits a partition of its vertex set such that the subtournament induced by is a non-trivial -strong for all .

Keywords:

## Finite entailment of Positive Horn logic ★★

Author(s): Martin

**Question**Positive Horn logic (pH) is the fragment of FO involving exactly . Does the fragment have the finite model property?

Keywords: entailment; finite satisfiability; horn logic

## Bases of many weights ★★★

Let be an (additive) abelian group, and for every let .

**Conjecture**Let be a matroid on , let be a map, put and . Then

## Chromatic number of associahedron ★★

Author(s): Fabila-Monroy; Flores-Penaloza; Huemer; Hurtado; Urrutia; Wood

**Conjecture**Associahedra have unbounded chromatic number.

## Monochromatic empty triangles ★★★

Author(s):

If is a finite set of points which is 2-colored, an *empty triangle* is a set with so that the convex hull of is disjoint from . We say that is *monochromatic* if all points in are the same color.

**Conjecture**There exists a fixed constant with the following property. If is a set of points in general position which is 2-colored, then it has monochromatic empty triangles.

Keywords: empty triangle; general position; ramsey theory

## Cube-Simplex conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Kalai

**Conjecture**For every positive integer , there exists an integer so that every polytope of dimension has a -dimensional face which is either a simplex or is combinatorially isomorphic to a -dimensional cube.

## Oriented chromatic number of planar graphs ★★

Author(s):

An oriented colouring of an oriented graph is assignment of colours to the vertices such that no two arcs receive ordered pairs of colours and . It is equivalent to a homomorphism of the digraph onto some tournament of order .

**Problem**What is the maximal possible oriented chromatic number of an oriented planar graph?

Keywords: oriented coloring; oriented graph; planar graph

## Almost all non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs are 1-connected ★★

Author(s): Haythorpe

**Conjecture**Denote by the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs of size , and similarly denote by the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular 1-connected graphs of size .

Is it true that ?

## Mapping planar graphs to odd cycles ★★★

Author(s): Jaeger

**Conjecture**Every planar graph of girth has a homomorphism to .

Keywords: girth; homomorphism; planar graph

## Partitioning edge-connectivity ★★

Author(s): DeVos

**Question**Let be an -edge-connected graph. Does there exist a partition of so that is -edge-connected and is -edge-connected?

Keywords: edge-coloring; edge-connectivity