Directed path of length twice the minimum outdegree ★★★

Author(s): Thomassé

Conjecture   Every oriented graph with minimum outdegree $ k $ contains a directed path of length $ 2k $.


Do any three longest paths in a connected graph have a vertex in common? ★★

Author(s): Gallai

Conjecture   Do any three longest paths in a connected graph have a vertex in common?


PTAS for feedback arc set in tournaments ★★

Author(s): Ailon; Alon

Question   Is there a polynomial time approximation scheme for the feedback arc set problem for the class of tournaments?

Keywords: feedback arc set; PTAS; tournament

Are there an infinite number of lucky primes?

Author(s): Lazarus: Gardiner: Metropolis; Ulam

Conjecture   If every second positive integer except 2 is remaining, then every third remaining integer except 3, then every fourth remaining integer etc. , an infinite number of the remaining integers are prime.

Keywords: lucky; prime; seive

Circular coloring triangle-free subcubic planar graphs ★★

Author(s): Ghebleh; Zhu

Problem   Does every triangle-free planar graph of maximum degree three have circular chromatic number at most $ \frac{20}{7} $?

Keywords: circular coloring; planar graph; triangle free

List Total Colouring Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Borodin; Kostochka; Woodall

Conjecture   If $ G $ is the total graph of a multigraph, then $ \chi_\ell(G)=\chi(G) $.

Keywords: list coloring; Total coloring; total graphs

General position subsets ★★

Author(s): Gowers

Question   What is the least integer $ f(n) $ such that every set of at least $ f(n) $ points in the plane contains $ n $ collinear points or a subset of $ n $ points in general position (no three collinear)?

Keywords: general position subset, no-three-in-line problem

Algorithm for graph homomorphisms ★★

Author(s): Fomin; Heggernes; Kratsch


Is there an algorithm that decides, for input graphs $ G $ and $ H $, whether there exists a homomorphism from $ G $ to $ H $ in time $ O(c^{|V(G)|+|V(H)|}) $ for some constant $ c $?

Keywords: algorithm; Exponential-time algorithm; homomorphism

Splitting a digraph with minimum outdegree constraints ★★★

Author(s): Alon

Problem   Is there a minimum integer $ f(d) $ such that the vertices of any digraph with minimum outdegree $ d $ can be partitioned into two classes so that the minimum outdegree of the subgraph induced by each class is at least $ d $?


What are hyperfuncoids isomorphic to? ★★

Author(s): Porton

Let $ \mathfrak{A} $ be an indexed family of sets.

Products are $ \prod A $ for $ A \in \prod \mathfrak{A} $.

Hyperfuncoids are filters $ \mathfrak{F} \Gamma $ on the lattice $ \Gamma $ of all finite unions of products.

Problem   Is $ \bigcap^{\mathsf{\tmop{FCD}}} $ a bijection from hyperfuncoids $ \mathfrak{F} \Gamma $ to:
    \item prestaroids on $ \mathfrak{A} $; \item staroids on $ \mathfrak{A} $; \item completary staroids on $ \mathfrak{A} $?

If yes, is $ \operatorname{up}^{\Gamma} $ defining the inverse bijection? If not, characterize the image of the function $ \bigcap^{\mathsf{\tmop{FCD}}} $ defined on $ \mathfrak{F} \Gamma $.

Consider also the variant of this problem with the set $ \Gamma $ replaced with the set $ \Gamma^{\ast} $ of complements of elements of the set $ \Gamma $.

Keywords: hyperfuncoids; multidimensional

Shannon capacity of the seven-cycle ★★★


Problem   What is the Shannon capacity of $ C_7 $?


Lindelöf hypothesis ★★

Author(s): Lindelöf

Conjecture   For any $ \epsilon>0 $ $$\zeta\left(\frac12 + it\right) \mbox{ is }\mathcal{O}(t^\epsilon).$$

Since $ \epsilon $ can be replaced by a smaller value, we can also write the conjecture as, for any positive $ \epsilon $, $$\zeta\left(\frac12 + it\right) \mbox{ is }o(t^\varepsilon).$$

Keywords: Riemann Hypothesis; zeta

Asymptotic Distribution of Form of Polyhedra ★★

Author(s): Rüdinger

Problem   Consider the set of all topologically inequivalent polyhedra with $ k $ edges. Define a form parameter for a polyhedron as $ \beta:= v/(k+2) $ where $ v $ is the number of vertices. What is the distribution of $ \beta $ for $ k \to \infty $?

Keywords: polyhedral graphs, distribution

Frobenius number of four or more integers ★★


Problem   Find an explicit formula for Frobenius number $ g(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n) $ of co-prime positive integers $ a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n $ for $ n\geq 4 $.


Bounding the on-line choice number in terms of the choice number ★★

Author(s): Zhu

Question   Are there graphs for which $ \text{ch}^{\text{OL}}-\text{ch} $ is arbitrarily large?

Keywords: choosability; list coloring; on-line choosability

Simplexity of the n-cube ★★★


Question   What is the minimum cardinality of a decomposition of the $ n $-cube into $ n $-simplices?

Keywords: cube; decomposition; simplex

Hamilton decomposition of prisms over 3-connected cubic planar graphs ★★

Author(s): Alspach; Rosenfeld

Conjecture   Every prism over a $ 3 $-connected cubic planar graph can be decomposed into two Hamilton cycles.


Cycles in Graphs of Large Chromatic Number ★★

Author(s): Brewster; McGuinness; Moore; Noel

Conjecture   If $ \chi(G)>k $, then $ G $ contains at least $ \frac{(k+1)(k-1)!}{2} $ cycles of length $ 0\bmod k $.

Keywords: chromatic number; cycles

Smooth 4-dimensional Poincare conjecture ★★★★

Author(s): Poincare; Smale; Stallings

Conjecture   If a $ 4 $-manifold has the homotopy type of the $ 4 $-sphere $ S^4 $, is it diffeomorphic to $ S^4 $?

Keywords: 4-manifold; poincare; sphere

Birch & Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture ★★★★


Conjecture   Let $ E/K $ be an elliptic curve over a number field $ K $. Then the order of the zeros of its $ L $-function, $ L(E, s) $, at $ s = 1 $ is the Mordell-Weil rank of $ E(K) $.


Roller Coaster permutations ★★★

Author(s): Ahmed; Snevily

Let $ S_n $ denote the set of all permutations of $ [n]=\set{1,2,\ldots,n} $. Let $ i(\pi) $ and $ d(\pi) $ denote respectively the number of increasing and the number of decreasing sequences of contiguous numbers in $ \pi $. Let $ X(\pi) $ denote the set of subsequences of $ \pi $ with length at least three. Let $ t(\pi) $ denote $ \sum_{\tau\in X(\pi)}(i(\tau)+d(\tau)) $.

A permutation $ \pi\in S_n $ is called a Roller Coaster permutation if $ t(\pi)=\max_{\tau\in S_n}t(\tau) $. Let $ RC(n) $ be the set of all Roller Coaster permutations in $ S_n $.

Conjecture   For $ n\geq 3 $,
    \item If $ n=2k $, then $ |RC(n)|=4 $. \item If $ n=2k+1 $, then $ |RC(n)|=2^j $ with $ j\leq k+1 $.
Conjecture  (Odd Sum conjecture)   Given $ \pi\in RC(n) $,
    \item If $ n=2k+1 $, then $ \pi_j+\pi_{n-j+1} $ is odd for $ 1\leq j\leq k $. \item If $ n=2k $, then $ \pi_j + \pi_{n-j+1} = 2k+1 $ for all $ 1\leq j\leq k $.


Sticky Cantor sets ★★


Conjecture   Let $ C $ be a Cantor set embedded in $ \mathbb{R}^n $. Is there a self-homeomorphism $ f $ of $ \mathbb{R}^n $ for every $ \epsilon $ greater than $ 0 $ so that $ f $ moves every point by less than $ \epsilon $ and $ f(C) $ does not intersect $ C $? Such an embedded Cantor set for which no such $ f $ exists (for some $ \epsilon $) is called "sticky". For what dimensions $ n $ do sticky Cantor sets exist?

Keywords: Cantor set

inverse of an integer matrix ★★

Author(s): Gregory

Question   I've been working on this for a long time and I'm getting nowhere. Could you help me or at least tell me where to look for help. Suppose D is an m-by-m diagonal matrix with integer elements all $ \ge 2 $. Suppose X is an m-by-n integer matrix $ (m \le n) $. Consider the partitioned matrix M = [D X]. Obviously M has full row rank so it has a right inverse of rational numbers. The question is, under what conditions does it have an integer right inverse? My guess, which I can't prove, is that the integers in each row need to be relatively prime.

Keywords: invertable matrices, integer matrices

The Erdös-Hajnal Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Erdos; Hajnal

Conjecture   For every fixed graph $ H $, there exists a constant $ \delta(H) $, so that every graph $ G $ without an induced subgraph isomorphic to $ H $ contains either a clique or an independent set of size $ |V(G)|^{\delta(H)} $.

Keywords: induced subgraph

Three-chromatic (0,2)-graphs ★★

Author(s): Payan

Question   Are there any (0,2)-graphs with chromatic number exactly three?


List colorings of edge-critical graphs ★★

Author(s): Mohar

Conjecture   Suppose that $ G $ is a $ \Delta $-edge-critical graph. Suppose that for each edge $ e $ of $ G $, there is a list $ L(e) $ of $ \Delta $ colors. Then $ G $ is $ L $-edge-colorable unless all lists are equal to each other.

Keywords: edge-coloring; list coloring

Elementary symmetric of a sum of matrices ★★★



Given a Matrix $ A $, the $ k $-th elementary symmetric function of $ A $, namely $ S_k(A) $, is defined as the sum of all $ k $-by-$ k $ principal minors.

Find a closed expression for the $ k $-th elementary symmetric function of a sum of N $ n $-by-$ n $ matrices, with $ 0\le N\le k\le n $ by using partitions.


Decomposing an eulerian graph into cycles with no two consecutives edges on a prescribed eulerian tour. ★★

Author(s): Sabidussi

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be an eulerian graph of minimum degree $ 4 $, and let $ W $ be an eulerian tour of $ G $. Then $ G $ admits a decomposition into cycles none of which contains two consecutive edges of $ W $.


Counterexamples to the Baillie-PSW primality test ★★


Problem  (1)   Find a counterexample to Baillie-PSW primality test or prove that there is no one.
Problem  (2)   Find a composite $ n\equiv 3 $ or $ 7\pmod{10} $ which divides both $ 2^{n-1} - 1 $ (see Fermat pseudoprime) and the Fibonacci number $ F_{n+1} $ (see Lucas pseudoprime), or prove that there is no such $ n $.


57-regular Moore graph? ★★★

Author(s): Hoffman; Singleton

Question   Does there exist a 57-regular graph with diameter 2 and girth 5?

Keywords: cage; Moore graph

Choice Number of k-Chromatic Graphs of Bounded Order ★★

Author(s): Noel

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a $ k $-chromatic graph on at most $ mk $ vertices, then $ \text{ch}(G)\leq \text{ch}(K_{m*k}) $.

Keywords: choosability; complete multipartite graph; list coloring

Convex Equipartitions with Extreme Perimeter ★★

Author(s): Nandakumar

To divide a given 2D convex region C into a specified number n of convex pieces all of equal area (perimeters could be different) such that the total perimeter of pieces is (1) maximized (2) minimized.

Remark: It appears maximizing the total perimeter is the easier problem.

Keywords: convex equipartition

Universal highly arc transitive digraphs ★★★

Author(s): Cameron; Praeger; Wormald

An alternating walk in a digraph is a walk $ v_0,e_1,v_1,\ldots,v_m $ so that the vertex $ v_i $ is either the head of both $ e_i $ and $ e_{i+1} $ or the tail of both $ e_i $ and $ e_{i+1} $ for every $ 1 \le i \le m-1 $. A digraph is universal if for every pair of edges $ e,f $, there is an alternating walk containing both $ e $ and $ f $

Question   Does there exist a locally finite highly arc transitive digraph which is universal?

Keywords: arc transitive; digraph

Complexity of the H-factor problem. ★★

Author(s): Kühn; Osthus

An $ H $-factor in a graph $ G $ is a set of vertex-disjoint copies of $ H $ covering all vertices of $ G $.

Problem  Let $ c $ be a fixed positive real number and $ H $ a fixed graph. Is it NP-hard to determine whether a graph $ G $ on $ n $ vertices and minimum degree $ cn $ contains and $ H $-factor?


Oriented chromatic number of planar graphs ★★


An oriented colouring of an oriented graph is assignment $ c $ of colours to the vertices such that no two arcs receive ordered pairs of colours $ (c_1,c_2) $ and $ (c_2,c_1) $. It is equivalent to a homomorphism of the digraph onto some tournament of order $ k $.

Problem   What is the maximal possible oriented chromatic number of an oriented planar graph?

Keywords: oriented coloring; oriented graph; planar graph

Sums of independent random variables with unbounded variance ★★

Author(s): Feige

Conjecture   If $ X_1, \dotsc, X_n \geq 0 $ are independent random variables with $ \mathbb{E}[X_i] \leq \mu $, then $$\mathrm{Pr} \left( \sum X_i - \mathbb{E} \left[ \sum X_i \right ] < \delta \mu \right) \geq \min \left ( (1 + \delta)^{-1} \delta, e^{-1} \right).$$

Keywords: Inequality; Probability Theory; randomness in TCS

Inscribed Square Problem ★★

Author(s): Toeplitz

Conjecture   Does every Jordan curve have 4 points on it which form the vertices of a square?

Keywords: simple closed curve; square

The 3n+1 conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Collatz

Conjecture   Let $ f(n) = 3n+1 $ if $ n $ is odd and $ \frac{n}{2} $ if $ n $ is even. Let $ f(1) = 1 $. Assume we start with some number $ n $ and repeatedly take the $ f $ of the current number. Prove that no matter what the initial number is we eventually reach $ 1 $.

Keywords: integer sequence

Barnette's Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Barnette

Conjecture   Every 3-connected cubic planar bipartite graph is Hamiltonian.

Keywords: bipartite; cubic; hamiltonian

End-Devouring Rays

Author(s): Georgakopoulos

Problem   Let $ G $ be a graph, $ \omega $ a countable end of $ G $, and $ K $ an infinite set of pairwise disjoint $ \omega $-rays in $ G $. Prove that there is a set $ K' $ of pairwise disjoint $ \omega $-rays that devours $ \omega $ such that the set of starting vertices of rays in $ K' $ equals the set of starting vertices of rays in $ K $.

Keywords: end; ray

Graphs with a forbidden induced tree are chi-bounded ★★★

Author(s): Gyarfas

Say that a family $ {\mathcal F} $ of graphs is $ \chi $-bounded if there exists a function $ f: {\mathbb N} \rightarrow {\mathbb N} $ so that every $ G \in {\mathcal F} $ satisfies $ \chi(G) \le f (\omega(G)) $.

Conjecture   For every fixed tree $ T $, the family of graphs with no induced subgraph isomorphic to $ T $ is $ \chi $-bounded.

Keywords: chi-bounded; coloring; excluded subgraph; tree

Mixing Circular Colourings

Author(s): Brewster; Noel

Question   Is $ \mathfrak{M}_c(G) $ always rational?

Keywords: discrete homotopy; graph colourings; mixing

Hilbert-Smith conjecture ★★

Author(s): David Hilbert; Paul A. Smith

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be a locally compact topological group. If $ G $ has a continuous faithful group action on an $ n $-manifold, then $ G $ is a Lie group.


Snevily's conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Snevily

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be an abelian group of odd order and let $ A,B \subseteq G $ satisfy $ |A| = |B| = k $. Then the elements of $ A $ and $ B $ may be ordered $ A = \{a_1,\ldots,a_k\} $ and $ B = \{b_1,\ldots,b_k\} $ so that the sums $ a_1+b_1, a_2+b_2 \ldots, a_k + b_k $ are pairwise distinct.

Keywords: addition table; latin square; transversal

Number of Cliques in Minor-Closed Classes ★★

Author(s): Wood

Question   Is there a constant $ c $ such that every $ n $-vertex $ K_t $-minor-free graph has at most $ c^tn $ cliques?

Keywords: clique; graph; minor

Dirac's Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Dirac

Conjecture   For every set $ P $ of $ n $ points in the plane, not all collinear, there is a point in $ P $ contained in at least $ \frac{n}{2}-c $ lines determined by $ P $, for some constant $ c $.

Keywords: point set

Primitive pythagorean n-tuple tree ★★


Conjecture   Find linear transformation construction of primitive pythagorean n-tuple tree!


Seymour's r-graph conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Seymour

An $ r $-graph is an $ r $-regular graph $ G $ with the property that $ |\delta(X)| \ge r $ for every $ X \subseteq V(G) $ with odd size.

Conjecture   $ \chi'(G) \le r+1 $ for every $ r $-graph $ G $.

Keywords: edge-coloring; r-graph

Atomicity of the poset of completary multifuncoids ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   The poset of completary multifuncoids of the form $ (\mathscr{P}\mho)^n $ is for every sets $ \mho $ and $ n $:
    \item atomic; \item atomistic.

See below for definition of all concepts and symbols used to in this conjecture.

Refer to this Web site for the theory which I now attempt to generalize.

Keywords: multifuncoid

Ding's tau_r vs. tau conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Ding

Conjecture   Let $ r \ge 2 $ be an integer and let $ H $ be a minor minimal clutter with $ \frac{1}{r}\tau_r(H) < \tau(H) $. Then either $ H $ has a $ J_k $ minor for some $ k \ge 2 $ or $ H $ has Lehman's property.

Keywords: clutter; covering; MFMC property; packing